Latin name: Branchiomyces sanguinis, Branchiomyces demigrans Other names: Pathogen:
Microscopic examination of gill filaments reveals fungal hyphae and spores. Fungal hyphae are tree-like, 26Ч60 microns in width. Hyphae are nonseptate, which is an important diagnostic feature, they contain gray spores, 8Ч13 micron in diameter,
Fish are easy to catch by hands,
Fish do not react to anything,
Fish stay near the surface or air stream, but not take air,
Fish stays in corners of a tank tilting body down,
Fish stop feeding,
Gray stripes on gills,
Mosaic gills coloring,
Red stripes on gills
As disease progresses, fish stop feeding, hover near the gravel or in the corners of the aquarium with the body down, gather in groups near water surface or near the filters, but they do not gasp for air as when there is a lack of oxygen. Sick fish become lethargic, do not react to irritants and can be easily caught by hand. Bright-red streaks can be observed on the gills. There are be dirty-grey necrotic sections in gill filaments. Microscopic examination the gill filaments will reveal fungal hyphae and spores. Fungal hyphae are tree-like, 26Ч60 micrometers in width. Hyphae are nonseptate, which is an important diagnostic feature. They contain gray spores, 8Ч13 micrometers in diameter.
This is an infectious disease caused by the fungi Branchiomyces sanguinis and B.demigrans, which localize between blood-vessels and connective tissue of gill filaments. Tree-like hyphae are nonseptate and contain grey spores. Disease progresses very rapidly, between 30 and 70 % of fish can die within 3-7 days.
While breathing, fish filter water through gills absorb the pathogens. Gill spores, going through the gill filter, stay on the gill filaments and grow. Inside the blood-vessels, the hypes grow and block blood vessels. As a result necrotic sections appear in the gill tissues and putrefactive bacteria cause them to decay and erode. The fungus Saprolegnia infests the necrotized gill tissues. In fish that have survived, the regeneration of gill filaments is a lengthy process and lasts between 8 and 10 months. Eroded gill filaments can be easily seen on the gills. Despite gas exchange disruption affected fish do not appear to suffer from asphyxia.
How to cure:
Sick fish are bathed in 25% sodium chloride solution for 5 minutes, daily until full recovery. (During baths, your fish closely, as sudden changes in osmotic composition of water may result in osmotic shock and death). Fish should be given transitory baths before and after therapeutic baths.
Once the diagnosis is made, all organic matter is removed from the aquarium. Replace 50% of the aquarium water with fresh settled water and then perform water aeration. As disease progresses very rapidly (between 4 and 7 days), the use of therapeutic solutions in the main tank proves to be ineffective. Treatment should be carried out in a separate tank. Copper sulphate solution is a treatment of choice.
Sera mycopur Sera ectopur Sera bactopur Sera bactopur direct T. C. Capsules (Aquarium Pharmaceuticals) Fungus Cure (Aquarium Pharmaceuticals)
Good management practices will create environmental conditions unacceptable for fungi growth: clean the aquarium, prevent the build-up of organic matter. Care should be taken to avoid the introduction of pathogens from natural reservoirs and fish farms.