Аквариумные рыбки и их болезни

Aquarium tropical fish and fish diseases


Ichthyosporidium hoferi

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Ichthyosporidium hoferi

Latin name: Ichthyosporidium hoferi
Other names: Fungus Disease
Pathogen: fungus

Symptoms: An autopsy of a severely affected fish reveals a mass of yellowish-brown nodules, the size of a millet seed, which can be seen with the naked eye and which cover the surface of the viscera. Microscopic examination will reveal cysts in the affected organ, Liver injury, Convulsions, Disequilibrium (dizzyness), Fish do swinging movements, Fish lie at the bottom on one side, Fish move in violent rushes, Fish stop feeding, Trembling fins, Black spots, Bloat, Bump, Constantly open mouth, Degeneration of gonads, Fraying of fins, Granular structure of the iris (Pterophyllum scalare only), Inflammation of eyes, Overall body thinness, Popped eyes, Scale raising, Ulcers

Внешние признаки болезни долгое время могут отсутствовать или быть слабо выраженными. Это во многом зависит от места локализации паразита и степени поражения им органа. При ихтиоспоридиозе наблюдается:
нарушение координации движений рыб при поражении нервной системы. При этом выражено скачкообразное плавание;
рыбы производят шатающиеся движения всем телом;
опускаются на дно и подолгу лежат, принимая боковое положение.
Иногда наблюдаются судороги всего тела и дрожание плавников;
пучеглазие и кератозный конъюнктивит при локализации возбудителя в глазном яблоке;
шишкообразные возвышения, язвы и раны, образующиеся на отдельных участках тела в результате поражения грибом подкожной соединительной ткани;
при развитии язв на корнях плавников (особенно на хвостовом) — полное или частичное разрушение последних. От пораженных плавников остаются одни только ости;
нарушение обмена веществ и воспаление кишечника при поражении печени и других органов пищеварения.
Рыбы отказываются от корма и крайне истощены, несмотря на разнообразное и полноценное кормление;
дегенерация гонад, вследствие чего наступает бесплодие; ерошение чешуи и водянка полости тела (асцит) при поражении почек;
открытая пасть при поражении соединительной ткани ротовой полости;
появление у цихлид пятен черного цвета;
потемнение и крупчатое строение радужной оболочки глаз у скаляр.
Иногда внешние признаки отсутствуют или еле заметны.
При вскрытии сильно пораженной рыбы даже невооруженным глазом можно заметить массу желтовато-коричневых узелков, величиной с просяное зерно, расположенных на поверхности внутренних органов.
При микроскопическом исследовании в пораженных органах видны цисты, что позволяет отличить эту болезнь от туберкулеза, т.к. внешние признаки заболеваний очень сходны.Disease may not manifest itself for a long time, or symptoms may not be very pronounced. It depends to a large extent on the localization of the parasite and on how much the organ is affected. Sick fish will show loss of coordination as the nervous system becomes affected. They will show erratic swimming and sway. Fish lie at the bottom on one side. Sometimes convulsions and fin flitching can be observed. Other symptoms to look for are Pop-eye and conjunctivitis if the pathogen gets into the eyeball. Cone-like growths, ulcers, and lesions appear in patches if connective tissues become affected. Ulcers that develop at the base of the fins (especially, the caudal) will cause fins to erode. Fin denudation is observed. Other symptoms are metabolic disturbance and inflammation of the intestines, liver and other digestive organs. Fish will stop feeding and show signs of emaciation even if given a balanced and varied diet. The gonad degeneration will cause infertility. Scale protrusion and ascites will be observed if kidneys are affected. If the fungus infects the mouth cavity, fish will swim with the mouth open. Cichlids will develop back spots. Scalars will show darkened iris that will have a granular structure. Sometimes symptoms are not well pronounced or do not show at all. An autopsy of a severely affected fish will show a mass of yellowish-brown nodules, the size of a millet seed, which can be seen with the naked eye and which cover the surface of the viscera. Microscopic examination will reveal cysts in the affected organs, which help to distinguish this disease from tuberculosis that has similar symptoms.

This is one of the most widely-spread and dangerous mycotic diseases seen in aquarium fish. It is an infectious disease caused by the phycomycetous fungus Icthyophonus hoferi.
The fungus has a multi-nuclei round body, between 6 and 20 micrometers in diameter. As an adult, it can reach 200 micrometers and can be well seen under the magnifying glass. Its hyphae are most commonly short and wide, more seldom filamentous. The parasite can affect any organs and tissues, apart from the skin, cartilaginous and bone tissues. They reproduce in two different ways. In the first case, wide hyphae will develop on their ends numerous daughter cells in the form of spores that reach up to 5 micrometers in diameter. In the second case, it will multiply by dividing into small parts. The affected organs form a cyst around the fungus inside which appear numerous daughter parasites. When the cyst burst, they invade the surrounding tissues and begin to develop independently. At this stage, the parasite resembles plasmodium, 6-20 micrometers in size. The parasite can affect any organs and tissues, apart from the skin, cartilaginous and bone tissues. This disease will rarely cause mass mortality. Spores with fish’s feces get into water and are swallowed by other fish. Once in the gastrointestinal tract, spore membranes dissipate within 24 hours. From them appear tiny daughter parasites, which penetrate the blood vessels and are carried with bloodflow to all organs where they begin to grow and reproduce. Dead decomposing fish are particularly dangerous. Invertebrates, Crustaceans in particular, serve as live food for fish can transmit the disease. Having infested an organ, the fungus causes inflammation. The organ increases in size because of infiltration. Then the organ decreases in size and cicatrisation can be observed. The walls of the organ thicken, become hard. The main damage the parasite causes is the formation of tumors. It also promotes degenerative processes in the organs which as a result of this stop functioning normally. Disease can be transmitted through newly-purchased fish which have not been quarantined, sick fish as well as through water, gravel, and plants from the infected aquarium. It can also be brought into the aquarium with water, gravel, plants, live food and other water organisms from ponds. Another means of transmission is via nets, scrapers, feeding –racks, and other equipment shared by several aquaria. The disease is fatal. Clinically disease resembles mycobacteriosis (fish tuberculosis), caused by the acid-fast bacterium Mycobacterium piscium. Diagnosis is through clinical signs, autopsy, and microscopic examination of affected organs that will reveal cysts. It is necessary to carry out a microbiological investigation with recovery of clean fungus culture. Concurrently inoculations are placed in the Petragnani media to rule out Microbacteriosis.

How to cure:
No effective treatment is known. Some success has been reported using fungicides, chemicals used to treat fungi, (phenoxetol and parachlorinephenoxetol) in the early stages of disease.

Dilute phenoxetol 1:100 with water, then add this solution to the aquarium at 10-20 cm3 per 1L of water. Soak dry food in Phenoxetol before feeding. After treatment, perform a water change.

Parachlorinephenoxetol is diluted 1:1000 with water and is then added into the aquarium at 50 ml per 1L of water. After treatment, perform a water change.

Prevention is a key factor in preventing this disease. In the majority of cases affected fish and plants are disposed of. The equipment, gravel and aquarium are disinfected with 3% chloramine solution and boiled.


Provide adequate aquarium maintenance routine and a balanced diet, avoid overcrowding the aquarium. Newly purchased fish are quarantined for a month. Plants from the infected aquarium are disinfected with Bicillin-5 solution. Gravel, pulverizers, and other equipment are boiled for 30 minutes. The aquarium is disinfected with 3% chloramine solution, 5% acidic solution or light chlorinated lime solution containing no less than 5% of active chlorine. Each aquarium should have its own fishing tackle and items of care.

Fish susceptible to the disease/disorder:
Aquarium fish of all ages are susceptible. Pod and commercial fish can also be affected.